Conversations on Europe: Free Movement in the Time of COVID

As Europe seeks to recover from the impacts of COVID-19, European leaders have implemented digital health passes and vaccine passports. These measures have met comparatively little resistance compared to the U.S., but critics warn of ethical and legal concerns, including data privacy. What does free movement mean in the time of COVID? How might we understand differences in public health policy with regards to vaccine mandates and vaccine passports across Europe and how does that compare to the U.S.?


  • Peter Baldwin, University of California Los Angeles
  • Ana Beduschi, University of Exeter
  • Sarah Chan, University of Edinburgh
  • Alex John London, Carnegie Mellon University


  • Jae-Jae Spoon, University of Pittsburgh


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